Daily GK Update: 12th January 2023

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Age Determination Techniques 

  • In November 2022, over four years after the gang rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl in Kathua, the Supreme Court held that one of the accused persons, who claimed to be a juvenile at the time of the commission of the offence, be tried as an adult.

What are the Different Age Determination Techniques?

Ossification Test

    • The most popular test for determining age is the ossification test.
    • The extent of ossification (i.e., calcification) and the union of epiphysis (rounded end of a long bone) in bones.
    • Though the variations in climatic, dietetic, hereditary and other factors affect the extent of ossification

Wisdom Teeth

  • Presence, absence, and eruption of wisdom teeth can be used as a method of estimating the age of an individual.
  • Wisdom teeth, also known as third molars, are the last teeth to emerge in the mouth
  • Based on the fact that the eruption of wisdom teeth follows a predictable pattern.
  • It is important to note that this method is not completely accurate and should not be used as the sole basis

Epigenetic Clock Technique

    • It measures DNA methylation levels to estimate the chronological age of the subject.
    • DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
    • This primarily occurs on cytosine that precedes a guanine nucleotide.
    • Cytosine is a chemical compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Radiographic Techniques:

    • X-ray and CT scans can be used to assess the maturity of bones, as well as to look for signs of degeneration or disease.

What is the Status of Birth Registration in India?

  • United Nations Children’s Fund report (2016), only 72% of births of children below five years were registered in India.
  • Out of 26 million children born every year, around 10 million went unregistered.
  • Sustainable Development Goal 16, providing legal identity for all, including birth registration, is a specific target.
  • Share of India’s institutional deliveries has increased to 88.6% in 2019-21 (NFHS-5) from 40.8% in 2005-06 (NFHS-3)
  • Non-registration of birth by the ‘head of the house’ or hospital is punishable with a fine of up to Rs.50 under the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969.
  • The draft amendment to this Act inter alia proposes to increase the fine up to Rs. 250 and Rs. 1,000 for an individual and institution, respectively.


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