Daily Current Affairrs Update: 4th March, 2023

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India’s Internal Migration

  • There is concern in Tamil Nadu over a possible exodus of migrant workers after videos showed purported attacks on Hindi-speaking men.
  • Almost a million migrants are estimated to work in Tamil Nadu, and industry bodies fear the state’s industrial and manufacturing sector would be severely impacted by an exodus.

What is Migration?

  • The International Organization for Migration defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a state away from his/her habitual place of residence. Factors Determining Migration
  • It can be either voluntary or forced movements as a consequence of the increased magnitude or frequency of disasters, economic challenges and extreme poverty or conflict situations.
  • In more recent years, the Covid-19 pandemic is also one of the major causes of Migration.

Push and Pull Factors of Migration

  • Push factors are those that compel a person to leave a place of origin (out-migration) and migrate to some other place such as - economic reasons, social reasons, lack of development of a particular place.
  • Pull factors indicate the factors which attract migrants (in-migration) to an area (destination) such as job opportunities, better living conditions, availability of basic or high-level facilities etc.

What are the Statistics about Migration?

2011 Census

  • Number of internal migrants (both inter-state and within state) in India at 45.36 crore, making up 37% of the country’s population.
  • The annual net migrant flows amounted to about 1% of the working age population.
  • India’s workforce was 48.2 crores strong. This figure is estimated to have exceeded 50 crores in 2016.

Report of the Working Group on Migration, 2017

  • Report under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation stated that 17 districts accounted for the top 25% of India’s total male out-migration.

Economic Survey 2016-17

  • less developed states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have high net out-migration.
  • more developed states such as Goa, Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka reflect net immigration.
  • largest recipient was the Delhi region, which accounted for more than half of migration in 2015-16.

Migration in India Report 2020-21

  • The report released by Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation in June 2022, collated numbers for temporary visitors and migrants.
  • 0.7% of the country’s population was recorded as a ‘temporary visitor’ during the July 2020-June 2021 period.
  • The all-India migration rate was 28.9% for July 2020-June 2021, with a 26.5 % migration rate in rural areas and 34.9% in urban areas.

What is the Significance of Migration and Migrants?

  • Labour Demand and Supply
  • Skill Development
  • Quality of Life
  • Economic Remittances
  • Social Remittances

What are the Challenges Related to Migration?

  • Issues faced by Marginalised Sections
  • Social and Psychological Aspects
  • Exclusion from Political Rights and Social Benefits

What are the Government Initiatives Related to Migration?

  • In 2021, NITI Aayog, along with a working subgroup of officials and members of civil society, has prepared a draft National Migrant Labour policy.
  • The ramping up of One Nation One Ration Card (ONORC) project and introduction of the Affordable Rental Housing Complexes (ARHC), PM Garib Kalyan Yojna scheme and e-Shram portal reflected a ray of hope.

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