Jainism is one of the ancient religions, which came to prominence in the 6th century B.C. There were 24 Tirthankaras, who attained all knowledge (Moksha) while living and preached it to the people. Rishabnatha was the first Tirthankara and Lord Mahavira was the last Tirthankara. In this article, we will learn everything about Jainism including the cause of the origin of Jainism Religion, Tenets of Jainism, and many more. Let's learn.
Period: 6th century B.C.
In this century, Lord Mahavira had propagated the Jain religion.
Total number of Tirthankaras: 24
First Tirthankara: Rishabnatha
Last Tirthankara: Lord Mahavira
All 24 Tirthankaras have attained all knowledge (Moksha) while living and preached it to the people.
Meaning of Jain: It is derived from Jina or Jaina, which means the ‘Conqueror’.
Rigid and orthodox: Hinduism had complex rituals, which made Hinduism rigid and orthodox and the dominance of Brahmins.
Varna system: It has been divided into four classes based on birth
Reaction of Kshatriya against the Brahmanas domination.
Aim: Attainment of liberation
According to the Jainism tenest, the liberation can be attained through three principles, which is known as Three Jewels (Triratna).
These three jewels are as follow:
Samyakdarshana: It means Right Faith
Samyakjnana: It means Right Knowledge
Samyakcharita: It means Right Action
Ahimsa: It refers to non-injury to a living being.
Satya: It means that nobody should speak a lie.
Asteya: It means that nobody should steal anything.
Aparigraha: It means that nobody should acquire property.
Brahmacharya: It refers to observing continence.
It has been divided into two major sects i.e. Digambara and Svetambara.
In this sect, monks believe in complete nudity.
Male: Male monks of this sect, do not wear clothes
Female: Female monks in this sect, wear unstitched plain white sarees.
They follow all five vows i.e. Aparigraha, Satya, Ahimsa, Asteya, and Brahmacharya.
They also believe that women cannot achieve liberation.
The exponent of this sect: Bhadrabahu
Major Sub-Sects: Mula Sangh, Bisapantha, Terapantha, Taranpantha or Samaiyapantha, Minor Sub-Sets, Gumanapantha, and Totapantha
Monks of this sect, wear white clothes.
They follow only 4 vows of Digambara, except brahmacharya.
They believe, that women can achieve liberation.
Exponent of this sect: Sthulabhadra
Major Sub-Sects: Murtipujaka, Sthanakvasi, and Terapanthi
During his last years, Chandragupta Maurya (king of the Mauryan empire) became a Jain ascetic and promoted Jainism in Karnataka.
The Jain Literature is mainly divided into two parts i.e. Agam and Non- Agam.
Agam Literature is written in the Prakrit language.
It has been divided into two parts i.e. Ang-agama and Ang-bahya-agams (outside of Ang-agams)
This literature contains the direct preaching of Lord Mahavir.
Immediate disciples of Lord Mahavira were known as Gandhara.
All Ganadharas have acquired perfect knowledge.
Ang-bahya-agams (outside of Ang-agams):
These texts are extensive versions of Ang-agams.
Compiled by: Shrutakevalin
It consists of commentary and explanation of Agam literature.
It is an independent work, which was compiled by elder monks, nuns, and scholars.
Ellora Caves (Cave No. 30-35), Maharashtra
Mangi Tungi Cave, Maharashtra
Hathi-gumpha Cave, Odisha
Gajapantha Cave, Maharashtra
Udayagiri-Khandagiri Caves, Odisha
Sittanavasal Cave, Tamil Nadu
Dilwara Temple: Mount Abu, Rajasthan
Girnar and Palitana Temple: Gujarat
Muktagiri Temple: Maharashtra
Location: It was held at Patliputra, Bihar
Period: 3rd Century B.C.
Presided by: Sthulbhadra
Location: It was held at Vallabhi, Gujarat.
Period: 512 A.D.
Presided by: Devardhi Kshmasramana
Final Compilations of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.